Brighton's bid had support from MP Helen Grant, Department for culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), and Visit England.
The conference, which takes place across six days from 12-17 May 2019, will be attended by 3,000 international delegates from across Europe.
Darren Johnson, sales manager at Visit Brighton, said: "This win puts us in very good company and reaffirms our position as a top-flight international destination.
"The bid process was competitive, detailed and lengthy and we’re especially proud to have brought the business to England for the very first time."
The ICASSP is one of the annual events of the IEEE, the world's largest professional association for the advancement of techonology, and has previously been held in Florence with Brisbane, Shanghai, New Orleans and Seoul in line to host the conference in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively.