The event, which usually attracts around 30,000 delegates, will take place at the ExceL London from 29 August to 2 september 2015 and is expected to generate £150 million for the local economy.
Talking exclusively to Association Event Planner, Ben Hainsworth, the ESC's director of congresses and meetings division, explained why the ESC is returning to the city after more than 60 years. He said: "I am tempted to say that it was primarily venue capacity but perhaps it was because until recently there was no coordinated drive from London to secure the event.
"Record attendance in Paris in 2011 showed that events like ours can actually benefit from being hosted in global mega-cities, somewhat contrary to accepted wisdom that small regional capitals are the only solution. The announcement of London 2015 is a reconfirmation of our global reach. It is the right time, right place: our profiles and ambitions have never been so complimentary. We were attracted by London's new venue and the informed, determined and comprehensive bid from the various partners."
The ESC Congress is the world's largest CardioVascular meeting, Europe's largest medical meeting and the world's third largest medical congress.
Tthe event attracted a record 35,000 delegates in Paris in 2011.
Other cities shortlisted were Munich, Stockholm, Barcelona and Vienna.
Mayor of London Boris Johnson said: "It is fantastic news that this eminent international society has chosen our great city. London has an impressive track record in hosting international conventions with excellent facilities and so much for delegates to see and do during their stay.
"Not only this, but these events bring investment and support jobs. Having shown our city off to the world this summer, I am sure we will see many more great instituions like the ESC making London the congress city of choice."
Professor Kim Fox, Past President of the ESC and Head of the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London, added: "This congress is not a one off. If it is successful, which I’m sure it will be, it will happen again in London."