The three-day event will take place on 4-6 October and is set to attract more than 1,400 museum professionals.
Secretary of State for Culture Jeremy Hunt is set to make the opening address at the conference.
The business win follows improvements at venue made as part of a £28.5m redevelopment programme.
The Museums Association director Mark Taylor said: "Manchester Central has made some significant improvements to the venue over the last few years, and we are very impressed with the work they have done. The changes will provide an easier and more comfortable experience for delegates to the conference, exhibitors and visitors to the exhibition."
The Museums Association will also host evening events at the People’s History Museum and the Museum of Science and Industry.